Qualidade do solo cultivado com café arábica (Coffea arabica L.) em diferentes sistemas de manejo agroecológicos

Silva, Maria Amélia Bonfante da (2023-03-23)


The intensification in the use of natural resources has caused changes in soil dynamics, with effects on its density, structure, porosity, organic matter content and nutrient availability. In this scenario, the agroecological management system (SMA) in coffee areas has been used as a more sustainable alternative for farmers and soil conservation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the physical quality and attributes of soil organic matter in Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.) crops under different plant arrangements and times of implementation of agroecological management. For this, three management systems were evaluated: S1 = intercropping of coffee, silver banana (Musa spp. AAB) and juçara palm (Euterpe edulis), 22 years of implantation; S2 = intercropping of coffee, silver banana (Musa spp. AAB) and peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth), 4 years of implantation; and S3 = intercropping of coffee and silver banana (Musa spp. AAB), 2 years of implantation. In each management system, the soil was collected in the projection of the crown (PC) and between the rows (EL) of the coffee tree to perform soil density (Ds) and particle (Dp) analyses; total porosity (Pt), macro (Map) and microporosity (Mip); clay dispersed in water (ADA), degree of flocculation (GF), geometric mean diameter (DMG) and; levels and stocks of total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (NT). In the field, evaluations of resistance to penetration (RP) and moisture () of the soil were carried out. All evaluations were performed at depths of 0-0,10 m; 0,10-0,20 m; and 0,20-0,40 m. In an area of native forest, samples were collected at the same depths mentioned above, to be used as a reference for non-anthropic soil. At the end of the study, it was verified that the S1 system presented positive results for the attributes Map, RP, ADA, GF and DMG, indicating improvements in the physical quality of the soil. Regardless of implantation time and soil depth, the SMA did not differ statistically in TOC and NT contents and stocks, and in collection points (PC and EL). The attributes Ds, Map, RP, ADA, GF and DMG were more sensitive to changes in the agroecological soil management system.